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Epidemiological Features of Non-typhoidal Salmonella in Humans and Domestic Food Producing Animals in Ethiopia: A Review

Tilahun Kassa Mumecha; Fekadu Seboka Wakenne
Salmonellosis is an infectious disease of human and animal caused by organisms of the two species of Salmonella i.e. S. enterica and S. bongori. Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is worldwide important diseases both in humans and animals, particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. The primary sources of NTS cases are of food of animal origin such as cattle, sheep, goat and poultry. Epidemiological pattern of prevalence of infection and incidences of disease differ greatly between geographical area depending on climate, population density, land use farming practice, food harvesting and processing technologies, consumer habits and biology of the serovars. Salmonella serotypes can be categorized as host restricted, host specific and generalist serotypes. The pathogen may survive for long periods in the environment and it is the carrier state that provides the major source of infection for animals and humans. The fecal wastes from infected animals and humans are important sources of bacterial contamination of the environment and the food chain. The outcome of infection with salmonella depends essentially on three factors: the infective dose, predisposing factor influencing the host and the level of immunity. In Ethiopia, several factors including malnutrition, the unhygienic living circumstances and the close relations between humans and animals may substantially contribute to the occurrence of Salmonellosis. Isolates from humans and animals by different researchers indicates changes in the relative frequency of serotypes were observed over a short period of time. However; what seems clear is that NTS accounts for a steadily increasing proportion.
Research areas:
Year:
2020
Type of Publication:
Article
Keywords:
Animal; Epidemiology; Non-Typhoidal Salmonella; Serovar
Journal:
IJAHVS
Volume:
5
Number:
5
Pages:
22-35
Month:
September
ISSN:
2455-8567
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